Blood pressure: a second target for
Hypertension or elevated blood pressure (BP), namely Systolic BP ≥ 140 and/or Diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, has been identified as one of the major risk factors for CHD, stroke and heart failure10.
High sodium (salt) intake, low potassium intake, high alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity, as well as body weight gain may increase BP in susceptible subjects11.
Targeted lifestyle modifications are the cornerstone for the prevention of hypertension. Healthy diet and lifestyle changes are recommended in all patients with suboptimal and elevated BP and should always be advised for patients receiving BP-lowering drugs, as these may reduce the dose of BP-lowering drugs needed to achieve BP control4,10. The dietary intervention specific to hypertension is salt restriction.
Dietary modifications should form the basis for CVD prevention
Other modifiable CVD risk factors: Obesity
Dyslipidemia, diabetes, and CVD, or any combination of these, are the most common metabolic complications of obesity. Risk of CHD, stroke and type 2 diabetes increases steadily with an increasing body mass index (BMI)12.
Weight reduction, as well as prevention of further body weight gain is indispensable to prevent or delay the major metabolic complications of obesity and to reduce CVD risk4.
Other modifiable CVD
risk factors: Diabetes
CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes mellitus4. Patients with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, often have an unhealthy blood lipid profile, including high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and high TG. Together with hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia in diabetic patients may facilitate the development of CHD and other complications of atherosclerosis4.
Diet and lifestyle intervention remains a key component for CVD prevention also in patients with diabetes. Weight reduction in overweight or obese subjects, increasing physical activity and adopting a healthy, well-balanced diet are fundamental considerations to improve both glycemic control and the blood lipid profile, thus reducing CVD.
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- Elevated blood pressure
- Increased age
- Unhealthy diet
- Elevated serum cholesterol
- Lack of physical exercise
- Genetic background